Monday, May 25, 2020

The Environmental Impacts Of The Gas Fracking Essay

ESSAY: â€Å"Should Australia continue to allow coal seams to be mined when the environmental impacts are unknown ?† Australia should not approve more coal seam gas mining applications and should urgently investigation the environmental impacts of the Fracking Process. The coal seam gas fracking process has been promoted as the new clean energy yet the process has been shown to cause leaks of carcinogenic chemicals and methane gas in multiple countries including America and Australia. It is also linked to the release of the radioactive Carbon, C226, and potential cancers from silicate. (REF) Australian Federal Mining laws cover extraction for coal and normal gas whereas Coal Seam Gas extraction is covered under it s own laws and regulations that do not requirea Environmental Study (ESI) of the processes water impacts(REF). A Federal body was created in 2004 called the National Water Commission. This Commission was regulated to manage the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) as it covers nearly a quarter of Australia and covers Queensland, NSW and the Northern Territory. This enabled a Federal overview of Australia s resources and decisions. One of it s goals was to promote debate about water issues and respond to the impacts coal seam gas may have on water resources (REF). This Commission was due to release a report in 2015 on the GAB and CSG impacts but the Federal government abolished the Commission in September, 2014. Now the GAB is under a Productivity Commission. (REF). InShow MoreRelatedThe Economic Report On Fracking, Is It Worth It?1465 Words   |  6 PagesEconomic Report Fracking, is it Worth it? Ron Withall Business 630, Dr. Lynn Reaser SUBJECT Our dependence on foreign oil and natural gas has created a vulnerability affecting our national security and economic stability. Up until this past decade there was an appreciable decline in our oil and natural gas production in the US and we were tied to world market price fluctuations. Oil prices and natural gas prices rose and fell based on OPEC’s and other large oil and natural gas producers’ productionRead MoreThe Effects Of Fracking On Environmental Impacts On The Environment1094 Words   |  5 PagesSubstantial societal concerns regarding fracking s environmental impacts have been raised. Firstly, the water requirements are significant, with an average of 20 million litres used per well. This is 50-100 times more water than in conventional natural gas extraction. An increase in fracking may exacerbate current global water stress due to pollution, climate change and population growth (Kim 2014). In addition to this, the water mixtures used in fracking contain an average of 200 000 litres ofRead MoreFracking : A Controversial Controversy1486 Words   |  6 PagesFracking is a highly controversial practice that utilizes the injection of water, chemicals and abrasives to extract relatively inaccessible pockets of natural resources. Although fracking has the potential to benefit the domestic economy, the practice of hydraulic fracturing, if left unregulated and mismanaged poses significant risks to the environment, the ecosystem and safety. Fracking has become a highly controversial and publicized topic in recent years due to rising concerns into the potentialRead MoreIs Fracking Safer : Wastewater Injections Cause Human Made Earthquakes, But The Risk Can Be Reduced1142 Words   |  5 PagesAnnotated Bibliography Arizona State University. (2016, September 22). Research finds way to make fracking safer: Wastewater injections cause human-made earthquakes, but the risk can be reduced. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 24, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160922150659.htm The Arizona State University effectively relays the information from a research done to evaluate the use of fracking techniques in relation to the Texas earthquakes experienced in May of 2012. The research doneRead MoreThe Effect Of Hydraulic Fracking On The Oil And Gas Industry1044 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Hydraulic Fracking is an oil and gas extraction process used in the past 60 years. The process consists of drilling the underground until reach a shale layer, and them a high-pressure fracking fluid is injecting in this hole to fracture the rock underground, which will provide oil and gas to be extracted. As a huge extraction process it requires large quantities of water, sand and chemicals, which are to produce the fracking fluid, and in most of the cases all this water and chemicalsRead MoreFracking, The Splitting Decision : An Analysis1726 Words   |  7 PagesFracking, The Splitting Decision: An Analysis of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Fracking Abstract Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is the process of drilling into the Earth and subsequently directly a high-pressure water, sand, and chemical mixture at shale rock to release the gas inside, out through the head of the well. Fracking allows firms to access previously inaccessible resources of oil and gas buried underneath the earth and hidden in the rocks. In the U.S., fracking has boostedRead MoreA Brief Note On Environmental Impacts Of Fracking1349 Words   |  6 PagesEnvironmental Impacts of Fracking In 2011, a report released by the International Energy Agency claims the world is entering the â€Å"Golden Age of Gas.† The report shows that, with the increasing projects of fracking, gas use will escalate 50 percent and replace coal to become the second largest fuel by the year of 2035 (IEA). Correspondingly, one study illustrates the increased practice of fracking has brought $ 74 billion economic gain per year since 2007 (Dews). Also, one oil company claims thatRead MoreEffects Of Fracking On The Environment And Human Health1208 Words   |  5 Pagesforms of energy the demand for gas has grown rapidly worldwide in recent years. This significant increase in demand has led to a boom in world gas prices. In Australia, there are large reserves of unconventional natural gas compared to conventional natural gas. However, according to the Bureau of Resource and Energy Economics (BREE) there is enough conventional natural gas in Australia to supply all of Australia at current l evels for more than 6130 years. Fracking extracts hydrocarbons from previouslyRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Fracking : A Controversial Topic Across The Globe1489 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking, as it more commonly known, is a very controversial topic across the globe. In the United States, its status remains the same. Hydraulic fracturing is a method of oil and natural gas production. The process includes the drilling of pipes 1-1.5 miles within the earth. After that pipe is secured and has an impermeable layer around the pipe, a tool that creates small holes within the impermeable layer is sent down through the pipe. It creates holes in the pipe that allowsRead MoreCritical Analysis of Fracking1054 Words   |  5 Pagesis clear that the US needs to find an alternative source of energy. Question Can the natural gas deposits in the Marcellus Formation, extracted through fracking, be the solution to the United States’ energy problem? Purpose The purpose of this analysis is to examine the process of extracting natural gas in shale deposits—Horizontal High Volume Slickwater Hydraulic Fracturing, or â€Å"Fracking†Ã¢â‚¬â€and determine the long-term viability of this process. Information †¢ The Marcellus Formation is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Existence of Social Order Today - 798 Words

Cheriez Lucas Upper 6 Mr Chinapoo Sociology Discuss how sociologists explain the existence of social order today. Sociologists define social order as a set of linked social structures, social institutions and social practices which conserve, maintain and enforce ways of relating and behaving. A society which has social order is one where the persons within it accepts the norms and values and replicate them in their behaviour. In studying the theories of social order, there are three main perspectives, the functionalist, the Marxist and the interactionist perspectives. The first sociologist to come up with the term social order was Thomas Hobbes, in the 17th century. Hobbes was an English philosopher who based his theory†¦show more content†¦These were: adaption, goal attainment, integration and pattern maintenance. Through the institutions socialization occurs and values are passed on from generation to generation. Also, in order for social order to be attained, the entire social system must be harmonious. For this to happen there need to be laws and sanctions for deviant behaviour. That is why today if someone commits a crime they’ll receive a punishment to fit the crime whether, it be jail time or they are fined. On the other hand, Marx talks about social order being forced unto the proletariats by the bourgeoisie. They, the bourgeoisie, conform the thinking of the proletariats to their capitalist way of thinking with ideologies. This is â€Å"a set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shapes the way a person or a group such as a social class thinks, acts, and understands the world†. This is also known as false consciousness (Engels), where the upper class forces their values onto the lower class. The control that the upper class exercises over the means of production includes not only the production of food or manufactured goods, it also includes the production of ideas as well. This explains why members of the subordinate class may hold ideas contrary to their own interests. T his is seen in Marx’s explanation of religion where he views it as the opium of the masses. Religion controls the mind of the proletariats, which in turn makes them accept the morals andShow MoreRelatedJonathan Klemens s The Protestant Work Ethic : Just Another Urban Legend?979 Words   |  4 Pagesfind their work both personally enjoying and a service to society. In other words, people who have found their passion. He goes on to explain that this dedication to hard work is exemplified by the existence of societies such as the Amish, Shakers, Mennonites, and the Hutterites. He attributes the existence of this work ethic in such an entitlement based society to the translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in the 1930s. He attributes the book, written by Max Weber, to startingRead MoreAnthropology : A Study Of Humanity1202 Words   |  5 Pagesfieldwork generally include direct observation, participation, collective discussion, analysis of personal documents, self-analysis, life histories, and interviews. Overwhelmingly, this type of data collection can be identified with many other types of social sciences. Sociology and economics also employ the use of observation, interviews, and individual accounts. However, something that sets anthropology aside from these other areas of study is the ready use of the scientific method. Like other scientistsRead MoreSong Analysis Essay611 Words   |  3 PagesSong Analysis Essay Social inadequacy is an aspect of life that many in today’s world consider a matter of great importance. There is a constant â€Å"war† for the apex position on the social hierarchy that has been created as a result of mankind’s strict focus on society. An indie pop band by the name of Fun. have taken this concern and made it the subject of a song called Some Nights. This song depicts and acknowledges the existence of a social hierarchy and the world’s fixation on reaching the topRead MoreReligion And Its Impact On Society910 Words   |  4 Pagesof a greater existence, in the early colonial times, many different religions have thus been formed, and all of these religions still effect our society today. Philosophical interest in religion may be said to have originated in the West with the ancient Greeks. Plato, who developed the metaphysical theory of Forms (abstract entities corresponding to the properties of particular objects), was one of the first thinkers to consider the idea of creation and to attempt to prove existence of God. Plato’sRead MoreIf God Does Not Exist, Then Everything Is Permitted1266 Words   |  6 PagesAlthough, some people argue that social stimulus imposes limits to one’s actions even if God does not exist. However, a person is at absolute liberty to perform, whatsoever one wants to in the non-existence of God because one does not regard anything as right or wrong in absence of objective moral principles and does not fear any Divine judgement. God (it does not matter whether it exists in different forms or in different numbers because the basic concept of existence is same), is a source of moralRead MoreThe Issues Of Cyber Bullying946 Words   |  4 Pagesphone calls to their parents, and some type of discipline between the children involved. Today however, for bullies has dramatically changed and the risk-reward balance has been significantly tilted in favor of the bullies. The Emergence of Technology Today, bullies can simply connect to the Internet and create aliases (real or anonymous) through free e-mail services, instant messaging services, and social networking services. They then use these means to effectively bully someone without the victimRead More Caribbean Culture and the Way it Formed Essay1196 Words   |  5 PagesCaribbean Culture and the Way it Formed One of the greatest debates that exists today about the Caribbean is the condition of the socio-culture of the people. Sidney Mintz, Antonio Benitz-Rojo, and Michelle Cliff are three authors that comment on this problem in their writings. They discuss whether there is a lack of identify, unity and culture in the lives of Caribbean people. They examine a culture which was created out of the chaos of slavery, colonialism and the integration of cultures thatRead MoreExistential Problems of Modern Living1033 Words   |  5 PagesExistential problems of modern living It seems that all the attention today, modern society society geared towards ensuring comfortable living conditions for the people and the development of human society in general. More and more attention is paid to the protection of human rights, care for the disadvantaged minorities, gender equality, social welfare, compulsory education, improving the legal system that will all realize. It could be said that a society is so arranged that even has time to dealRead MoreCompare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy1696 Words   |  7 Pagessatisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory, Clayton P. Alderfers Existence Related Growth (ERG) Theory, and the expansion of David McClellands Need Theory by Henry A. Murray. Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908, the first of seven born to his poorly educated Jewish immigrant parents. Encouraged by hisRead MoreSocial Organized Crime Perspective886 Words   |  4 PagesSocial Organized Crime Perspective May 21, 2012 CJA 384 Social Organized Crime Perspective Organized crime is found in the United States of America today and the law enforcement agencies are trying to find a way to curb its existence. Even though there are illegal businesses associated with organized crime, they are mixed in with legal businesses to portray a legal front. It also can be called a social institution because it is led by a boss and follows a chain of command much like a pyramid

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Effective Communication and Public Relation Management †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Communication and Public Relation Management. Answer: Introduction The main emphasis of this research study is to examine the effectiveness of communication and public relation in the tour and travel industry. Communication is a vital aspect of service industry which is responsible for the success and failure of the organisation (Alhroot, 2015). Moreover, relation with the shareholders, stakeholders and customers ensures the growth of the company effortlessly. Communication and constructive public relations within the organisation gives favourable work environment/organisational culture to the employees that helps in employee engagement and ultimately provides more productivity and performance of the organisation. External effective communication with the customers, vendors and other external stakeholders provides goodwill and negotiable position for the business in the market place. In this study, the concept of communication and public relationship has been illustrated. It represents the two main concepts that are effective team communication and role of corporate communication and public relation writer to explore improvement areas in the administrative department. Recommendations are also provided to implement the training program effectively. Background Communication is a business saving concept which cannot be avoided by the management. It helps the company in attaining the competitive advantage and survival of the company in the intense competition of the market. It helps in management of internal and external environment and resolving issues of employees and stakeholders naturally. Furthermore, public relation is concept that helps a company maintain and creating its positive image in the market to attract the investors (Hendrix and Hayes, 2009). It also helps in building strong relationship with the stakeholders of the company of the management. In the present context, Johns Outback Adventure Company is dealing with some issues associated with the communication and public relation. The Australian company offers outback and adventurous services to the clients from foreign land or in land. However, it has been analysed that Chinese clients are valuable customers and the largest in the numbers. A guiding team is offered to their cu stomers to visit Australias natural beauty and experience adventurous sports like scuba diving and sky diving. Apart from that administrative department is concerned with the advertising and corporate communication in the organisation plus respond to the public queries in mails and media as a reputation management. In order to improve its services training program regarding communication and public relation concept has been explored below to train and motivate employees accordingly. Effective Team Communication Effective team communication is a leading feature that affects the consultancy services provides to the customers. In the present case also tour and travel involves the consultancy services by communicating with the clients and dealing with their different issues with the help of experts in the team. Thus, team management assists in communication with the same meaning and effective same solution for the clients (Cenere et al., 2015). Ability to communicate as a team provides accomplishment of the work by winning on the ground of team efforts. Additionally it helps in creating new ideas and innovation in the system of the company. Apart from this, team communication brings success to any plan with strong relationship in the team members. More to this, team communication facilitates cohesiveness as it strengthens the relation of team with the organisation as well as interconnection of team members with each other. It provides a supportive culture for the employees that encourage them t o share their thoughts more vigorously and openly. It also makes team members wanted and imperative when they share some information or idea among other with confidence. Not only this, the individual development of the team members, but also ensured when effective team communication is in the system. It facilitates the development and growth of the individual employee in its profession and career (Cenere et al., 2015). Team members are more systematically able to solve management and task conflicts by persistently communicating and learning from their seniors or by other members in the group. There are various benefits that encourage an organisation to implement a strategic approach to improve the team communication. Profitability is directly proportional to the effective communication as a team of the organisation (Diggs-Brown, 2011). When team is able to decode and understand each other well it reduces the time of interpretation and fast service to the client. It also decreases the risk of error and inappropriate action risk for the given situation. In addition to this, if any error occurs in the communication the system will rectify the mistake and improve its services in the upcoming projects. This encourages the team members to comprehend every task with the close watch and do every task very carefully. Besides that, effective communication in the team is essential to encourage and motivate personnels to open in the communication and inspire them to exchange creative ideas and innovation in the workplace (Diggs-Brown, 2011). It increases their involvement in every pr oject automatically as they feel more confident and respected as part of effective team. Furthermore, it also cater them enthusiasm to solve internal issues of the organisation as well as provides optimistic environment for stakeholders of the company. The effective team communication helps employees to treat each other as family and improve their relationship with each other, this makes easier for them to accomplish a task with better quality (Laskin, 2010). It has also been known that globalisation and competition is changing the market condition in a very unpredictable way. Thus, to ensure the survival of the organisation or even coping up with the external market environmental changes, it is mandatory for an organisation to deal in a healthy environment where effective team communication is a key characteristic. Moreover, in the complex situation and difficult environmental condition the confidential informations and implementation of strategies are only being guaranteed with the help of effective team communication (Laskin, 2010). It establishes a communication stru cture to the organisation that can solve the most of management related problems of the organisation and aids in quick adaptability of the change in management and even external environmental changes. On the other hand, it basically enhances the comprehensiveness and outlook of the team members towards the situation and the projects. The diversity in the backgrounds and with the increase in the number of team members the effectiveness also becomes less visible. However, swiftly team member start to comfort in the team environment and make the things at ease and secured for everybody (Smith and Mounter, 2008). Mutual understanding between the workers amplifies and even in the different and diverse cultural background which shows their adoptability and fusion abilities which is very necessary for the effective team communication. Moreover, to make the effective team communication the leader of the team must be very clear to articulate the clear massage and tasks to the team. That will give direction to the team members and they will set a goal for their future actions accordingly. The leader should also ensure responsibility of the team members as an individual, integration of motiv ation techniques and affirmative environment to guarantee the success of the task and project (Smith and Mounter, 2008). Therefore, it can be depicted from the above text, that effective team communication fixes various problems in the internal management related to the relationship crisis between employees and management, cultural diversity and issue of openness of the employees to share new ideas and creativity in the system (Chinemere, 2015). In the overall level, it enhances the positivity in the environment of the firm and increases the productivity by fastening the services provided to the customers. Effective team communication also facilitates direction to the employees to attain the organisational goals and objectives. It makes employee engagement and loyalty sense in the firm stronger and ensures sustainability in the working environment. Role of corporate communication and PR writers In the same manner, corporate communication and public relationship writer has a central position in offering tour and travel services to the customers. Corporate communication and PR writers influences all the market position of the company that direct benefits to the company. It improves the connection of the company with its clients, vendors, creditors, suppliers and crucial external stakeholders (Cornelissen, 2014). These connections help an organisation in dealing with the adverse situation when market position of the organisation becomes negative. Thus, it can be inferred that the function of corporate communication and public relationship writer is significant in an organisation which is in a service sector. Along with this, articulation of information and queries by the customers is effectively delivered by these writers regardless of the clients background and culture or language. These communication and public relationship writers are well aware and expertise to deal with d iverse people and to exchange information with them precisely. Likewise, the corporate communication also acts in the starting of any deal in the organisation; therefore it represents the face of the company and dealing carried on with their participation. For this reason, the companys goodwill and status is also been established by these public relationship writers and corporate communicators. The interaction from media to employees of the company by delivering written speeches, newsletters, messages for investors and interviews are also catered with the help of corporate communicators and public relation writers (Cornelissen, 2014). Whole of the process to handle the public image through interaction and communication with media is directed and controlled by the corporate communicators. They provide information and facts to present at the time of conferences and provide news in a local or international level. It also writes the speeches and arranges all the required event promotion banners flyers and graphic displays in the media. Thus, it can be ensured that it management the media affair for any organisation and delivers it information and speeches for the media conference. It is responsibility of the public relationship writer to maintain the official website of the company and provide effective and useful information to its stakeholders. In addition to this, it also creates written matters that are related with the upcoming events and their advertisement to increase stakeholders participation (Harrison, 2016). Furthermore, corporate communicators and public relation writers respond to the queries, calls and emails from the public which is a prominent way to interact with the general public directly. It maintains the image of the organisation in front of everyone and internationally. They also work as a coordinator when they fail to provide their services directly. They arrange speakers for corporate tours and local community groups which create presentations for them. At the same time, they are also responsible to manage the crisis which can demolish the public image of the company in any event or media interaction. They facilitate their professional advice to minimise the damage and methods to recover from the losses. The communicators and public relationship writer also handles critical and complex situations which involve serious issues such as accidental death in the workplace, strike with violence, layoff announcement and violence in the workplace or any other ethical issue (Harrison, 2016). They establish a proper strategically plan to minimise the loss and the basic backup plan to make out of the crises. Besides that, they also work with government officials, other companys staff and officers, attorneys and political officials to share the filtered information and develop a solution to resolve the crisis. Supplementary to this, corporate communicators and public relation writers manage all the blogs of the organisation on the internet and intranet (Booth and Matic, 2011). Similarly, they advice top level mangers and organisers on how to deal and communicate with the employees that helps in motivating them and increasing their involvement in the organisation. It helps the organisation in the productivity and performance of high quality. In addition to this, they are the basic communicator which provides information to the staff members about their training programs, announcement newsletters. In this manner, the corporate communicators and public relationship writers also incorporates corporate social responsibility in the organisation coherently and persuasively. It provides foundation for its implementation and execution of corporate social responsibility. Furthermore, it helps in providing information which enables public and stakeholders to know about the sustainability report and social performance of the company (Booth and Matic, 2011). It also facilitates internationalisation of the company and relaxes on the expansion and growth of the company. Thus, it can be implicated from the above study that corporate communication and public relation writers helps a company in maintain its image through professional expertise and delicate information sharing about the company (Chinemere, 2015). It maintains the secrecy of the company as well as it diplomatically helps the company in building up the healthy image of the company. Conclusion In the above context, it illustrates that effective team management and function of corporate communication and PR writer is a key aspect in managing the communication and public relation issues. A company can concentrate on team management so that the communication system in the organisation become flexible and helps the management to work with the employees as a team. It helps the leader in utilising employees full strength and energy to achieve any objective. It will facilitate the management higher productivity and performance of the organisation regarding communication and public relationship issue. The corporate communicator and public relation writer will ensure a strong image o the organisation in the market which gives management a power in a negotiating position plus it will help in creating positive external environment for the company. The effective communication provides filtered information of the company which can not harm companys image anytime also it handles crisis management or miss-happening in the organisation quickly with the effective planning and strategy. Apart from this, these both aspects such as effective team management and corporate communicator or PR writer will help the company in problem solving and minimising the risk of conflicts in the internal management of the organisation. Furthermore, organisational culture will also improve if communication in the organisation to become effective. Optimistic organisational culture will encourage employees for loyalty and their commitment towards family and inspire them to achieve their individual career gals concentrating on achieving the organisational goals too. Hence, in the end the research is very imperative findings to achieve a good position for organisation in from of its competitor as well as in adverse conditions due to effective communication and strong public relation policies followed by the management. It quickly resolves the issues of confusion and insecurity among the employees. It also facilitates strong response and condition in front of stakeholders that built their confidence in investment with the organisation and trust with their loyalty towards the company. Recommendations As a suggestion, in order to establish an effective communicating and public relation in the organisation management should consider some points while executing a training program which are given below: The process of hiring and selection of the employees should be precisely watched and done. The new hiring must be qualified and equipped with new technology and approach to solve the problems of the company (Nyachwaya, et al., 2015). Furthermore, training program for new members and existing employees who have less productivity and encouragement to carry on their task should be arranged. While giving training to the employees, there should b a light environment with less pressure so that employee can learn things without anxiety and burden. The management should respect and stimulate apt behaviour which encourage employees and let them feel valuable which increases responsibility factor in the employees (Nyachwaya, et al., 2015). Management should concentrate on efficacy of the work collaboration in front of employees as to optimal utilise the workforce and motivate them to effort more and more. Open communication and creativity in training program should be considered important part of training. Employees thoughts and sharing of innovation and new idea should be encouraged. Always give them direction to attain the goals of organisation simultaneously and concentration on team communication skill (Nyachwaya, et al., 2015). The massage or information related to any project of task must be communicated clearly and carefully. Try to built a trust between the employees and management and establish cooperating among the employees to encourage them work as a team. In addition to this, allocation of the task should be prominently instructed to the employees as well as problems and issues related task also provided to the employees to test their creative skills and approach (Harrison, 2016). Open to the suggestion and flexible environment among the employees with the management should be catered so that queries and hesitation of the employees can be addressed quickly. Measuring the team effectiveness is very necessary to evaluate the training effectiveness along with the analysis ability to adjustment of employees in a group task. Regulation and standards should be directed to the employees to set the ground rule for team members to solve little issues and queries. Role and responsibility should also be clearly acknowledged by the team members to avoid conflicts and confusion between them (Harrison, 2016). A team support should be made among them which will give confidence to them and inspire to achieve individual and organisational goals at the same time. Reference Alhroot, A. H. 2015. Measuring Public Relations and Communication a Case Study of Jordanian Hotels. International Journal of Economics,Commerce and Management 3(1), pp. 1-11. Austin, E.W., and Pinkleton B. E. 2015. Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Campaigns. Routledge. Booth, N., and Matic, J. A. 2011. Mapping and leveraging influencers in social media to shape corporate brand perceptions. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 16(3), pp. 184-191. Cenere, P., et al. 2015. Communication Skills for Business Professionals. Cambridge University Press. Chinemere, T. T. 2015. An Analysis of Speech Communication Skills Strategies for Effective Public Relations Management for Organizational Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication 1 (2), pp.14-24. Cornelissen, J. 2014. Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice. SAGE. Diggs-Brown, B. 2011. Strategic Public Relations: An Audience-Focused Approach. Cengage Learning. Harrison, S. 2016. Disasters and the Media: Managing crisis communications. Springer. Hendrix, J. A., and Hayes, D. C. 2009. Public Relations Cases. 8th ed. Cengage Learning. Laskin, A. 2010. Managing Investor Relations: Strategies for Effective Communication Business Expert Press digital library. Business Expert Press. Nyachwaya, F. N., et al. 2015. The Role of Communication in Enhancing Public Relations in Legal Firms: A Survey of Law Firms in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences 4(1), pp. 19-28. Smith, L., and Mounter, P. 2008. Effective Internal Communication. Kogan Page Publishers.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

The Accomplishments of Cardinal Richelieu Essay Example For Students

The Accomplishments of Cardinal Richelieu Essay Up until the mid 17th century, it was evident that France was by no means a major player in the field of European affairs. Spain was still the most powerful state as it held a dominant monopoly over European commerce and economics. However, by 1648, this power would shift, and France would come into its own in terms of political and economic influence. The transfer of power was aided by a weakening of the Spanish Empire, along with the establishment of an increasingly strong French state. This establishment of France would begin to occur prior to the religious wars, and would be spearheaded by a strengthening of the centralized government through the development of royal absolutism. The most significant contributor to this movement was Cardinal Armand du Plessis de Richelieu, political advisor to the king, Louis XIII, and head of the French Roman Catholic Church. The Cardinals capable leadership, ambition and strong will fortified Frances move from a second rate country to a European powerhouse. During his reign as first minister, Richelieu would accomplish numerous tasks, and establish himself as a symbol of power and leadership in France. Born in Paris in 1585, Armand du Plessis de Richelieu is considered by many to have been the most important single figure in the building of French absolutism . Despite his role in distinguishing France on the European map, some of the Cardinals greatest personal accomplishments lie before his reign as first minister. To best understand these accomplishments, in particular how a middle ranking ecclesiast of little influence would become the most successful of the Kings political advisors, it is best to look into his personal background. Probably the Cardinals greatest assets in his rise to the top were his strong ambition and will. These characteristics can be traced back to his father, Francois Richelieu, whose own ambition and military accomplishment helped gain him the reigning Kings, Henry III, favor. This rise in favor, along with the establishment of important family connections, would allow Francois to tap into royal ecclesiastical patronage . Armand eventually benefited from this by gaining the title of Bishop of Lucon. Unfortunately, before Richelieus father could create any form of financial establishment, he died, and left the family in debt. However, the message he left his sons, in particular Armand, was not one of failure, but rather one of what could be accomplished when one was willing and ambitious. This attitude would set the stage for the son of Richelieu, who would use his religious status as bishop and educated background along with some important family connections to help pull his way to the top. It took Richelieu a full decade to accumulate the title of Cardinal and he would suffer a number of political setbacks along the way. But, by the year 1624, Richelieu had gained entrance into the kings council, and soon after became the kings personal advisor. His decade long assent prov ided him with the education needed to maintain an 18 year reign (until his death in 1642) which would see the beginnings of French dominance in Europe. Although King Louis XIII and Richelieu would eventually work together to create a politically dominant France, it is important to note that their relationship was not always as such. Prior to his roles as political advisor and Cardinal, Richelieu entered the queen mothers court by becoming the secretary of state during her regency. At this point, Richelieu would suffer a major upset in his political assent when Louis overthrew his mothers court and took political control of France in 1617 . Affiliation with the Queen Mothers court and suspected implication in attempted rebellions against Louis kept the future Cardinal in exile for a number of years. However, the Queen Mother and her son would eventually come to a temporary peace settlement, and when she was reinstated, so was Richelieu. More importantly, as advisor to the Queen Mothe r, Richelieu had shown a political shrewdness and wisdom that had gained Louis favor . The king was willing to overlook Richelieus earlier associations and an overbearing administrative style that he had once likened to tyranny, and appointed him to council in 1624. The Cardinal soon became the kings advisor through his ability to provide help in relation to conflicting religious and secular interests and his display of able political decisions. Although the king had provided the Richelieu with much political influence, he still had strong personal notions of where he wanted his state to go, and the characteristics of his advisors. Part of the Cardinals success was due to his ability to conform to the kings ideas, and at the same time execute a strong influence over council. The resulting relationship entailed a respect of Richelieus political ability by the King, and a respect of the Kings authority by Richelieu. The result of this dual respect was the ability of Richelieu to stay in power, and be able to influence the shaping of France into a dominant European state.Even before he had become first minister, Richelieu recognized the need for change in the governing of French affairs. He would portrayed his views in a speech to the queen mothers court in 1616 , his first public address, during which he outlined the weaknesses of the present-day structure of government. Once he had become first minister, Richelieu set out to eliminate these weaknesses in order to create a more stable French state. One of Richelieus main objectives to allow for a fortification of Frances European position lay in a strengthening of the countrys internal political structure through the establishment of an absolutist monarchy. Richelieu saw three main ways to fully and successfully establish this ideal monarchy; to deal with any threat of Religious conflict; to humble the great men , that is, reduce noble power; and to bring the subjects to their duty, which meant full loyalty to t heir ruler, King Louis XIII.Richelieus first issue, to deal with Religious conflict or threat, was focused mainly on the Huguenots. The Huguenots of France were a group that had benefited substantially from the Edict of Nantes signed in 1598 as it permitted them both political influence and military presence. Richelieu saw both of these privileges as a direct threat to the crown since they conflicted directly with the ideology behind his absolute monarchy. Not only this, but he foresaw in this political and military power the means and makings of a revolt, especially should the Huguenots gain foreign support. Revolt would eventually occur as the Huguenots, aided by the British, rebelled against the French crown in the city of La Rochelle . Richelieu quickly crushed the rebellion and stripped the Huguenots of all political and military power through the signing of the Edict of Alais in 1629 . It is important to note however, that Richelieu did not persecute the Huguenots for religiou s belief despite his position as Cardinal of the French Catholic Church. This religious lenience reflects the Cardinals priorities of state in his search for political stability, something which religious dispute and conflict had shown to disrupt in the past.Richelieu also focused his attention on the types of people who were to fill ecclesiastic roles, especially the high church officials. It had been made obvious to Richelieu through past example, that the scandalous and flamboyant lives often lead by these church officials did little else than annoy the common public and thus endanger the stability of the state. Richelieu aimed to fill the church hierarchy with persons of both merit and commendable habits . This would not only cleanse the churchs image, but allow Richelieu to strategically place allies and supporters within the church hierarchy. The Cardinal employed this same strategy to gain supportive factions in both the military and civil offices.Richelieus second focus area was the aristocrats, a class which he saw as an important organ of the state capable of contributing much to its preservation and stability. This recognition of aristocratic importance, however, did not override the Cardinals ambitions for absolute monarchy, and he placed the affairs and powers of state far above those of the nobles. In short, the Cardinal recognized the need to limit the aristocratic domain, and impose upon it royal law and order. It had become obvious to the Cardinal, that a lack of enforcement of centralized power, on the part of the French government, had allowed the French nobles to develop a sense of defiance towards the crown. Some of the major land-holding aristocrats had grown particularly powerful and independent. This resulted in a lack of loyalty towards the crown as many nobles felt that their position placed them above the status of royal subjects. Richelieu would come down hard on the nobility through a restriction of their rights, and independence. By implementing the spy system, Richelieu effectively crushed any conspiracies and thereby eliminated any major internal threat to the king. The rigidity and severity of the Cardinals methods were quite evident, as portrayed in the punishment of Seigneur Bouteville, who was executed for fighting a simple duel on the Place Royal . This restriction of dueling would become one of the Cardinals target areas since it was a show of noble military presence, no matter how seemingly insignificant. The end result of this and other restrictions placed on the nobles was an enforcement of state dominance through example. It wasnt long, however, before the nobles took up arms to defend their decreasing independence and began revolting. One such revolt occurred at Laguedoc, in 1632, under the leadership of the politically influential Duke of Montmorency . Richelieu responded to this and other conflicts by defeating the rebels, using the Kings forces, and executing the participants. Through this th orough and methodical defeat of the aristocracy, the Cardinal effectively established King Louis as the sole symbol of power in France.The other major group that Richelieu wished to reform was what he referred to as the third order of the realm . This third order was composed of three groups: the judiciary, the finance officers, and the common people. Richelieus goal in the reformation of these groups was to clearly define their roles as subjects of the king, and thus further enforce kingly power over all affairs and aspects of the state.When it came to the judiciary and finance officers, Richelieu attempted to dispell their perceived corruption through a strategic placement of allies who displayed more merit in office. Again, to forcefully establish crown dominance in the state, Richelieu would employ the use of state officials. The officials effectively carried out their role of executing government orders within the state, and using force to deal with any attempt to refuse them. The result was a successful enforcement of kingly authority over the states provinces and kings subjects; the commoners. In an attempt to set an example for the role of these commoners Richilieu discouraged their education. The cardinal explained that one would find little obedience and an excess of pride and presumption in a country made up entirely of educated people. Richelieu would instead encourage the kings subjects to take a greater interest in the military rather than the luxuries of education. This definition of the subjects roles displayed the Cardinals further ambition of military strength and French expansion in Europe. It is usually assumed that just as Richelieu had a clear plan to create an absolute monarchy in France, he wished to expand French power abroad . At the time, one of the best ways to expand a countrys influence in Europe was to establish a strong navy. This would become one of the Cardinals focus areas as he sought to create a fleet of ships capable of tr ansporting goods, and providing adequate protection in the process. The result was a strengthening of the countrys economic and political status through increased trade of French and foreign goods. To fortify French presence to a greater extent, Richelieu showed his support of the arts and education by founding the French Academy . The country would greatly increase its output of art and writings and eventually establish itself as cultural model for the rest of Europe. Another method that allowed the Cardinal to strengthen Frances position in Europe was through a fortification of the military. This proved to be extremely useful during the course of the ensuing religious wars which would see France come out victorious over a declining Spanish empire.From a middle ranking and uninfluential bishop, to the man who molded France into a European powerhouse, Armand du Plessis de Richelieu achieved a number of accomplishments on a number of levels during the course of his life. The Cardinal not only established himself politically, but stabilized the French state through absolute monarchy, and introduced to Europe a new dominant France. Perhaps one of the only failures lay in his inability to stabilize the French Economy, which would spiral upward during his reign, and ultimately become the countrys downfall in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Despite this, it is clearly the political ability, ambition and will of Cardinal Richelieu that would allow him to mold France into a political and cultural model for the rest of Europe and earn him the respect of historians and contemporaries as a true man of destiny . .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .postImageUrl , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:hover , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:visited , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:active { border:0!important; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:active , .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9 .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5180fd23fe88aa8c6603eba4e88a63f9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Wffrfrg Essay We will write a custom essay on The Accomplishments of Cardinal Richelieu specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now

Monday, March 9, 2020

Types of Spanish Pronouns

Types of Spanish Pronouns Almost all of us like to take shortcuts, and thats one way to think about what pronouns are: In both Spanish and English, theyre usually a shorter and quicker way of referring to a noun. Common pronouns in English include he, she, what, that and yours, all of which usually would be replaced by longer words or more words if we didnt have the pronouns at our disposal. Spanish and English Pronouns Compared In general, pronouns in Spanish function much as they do in English. They can fulfill any role in a sentence that a noun can, and some of them vary in form depending on whether theyre used as a subject or an object. Probably the biggest difference is that in Spanish most pronouns have gender, whereas in English the only gendered pronouns are he, she, he, and him. If a pronoun has gender, it is the same as that of the noun to which it refers. (In English, gendered pronouns nearly always refer to people are animals, although it is possible to refer to a few personified objects by gender, such as when a ship or a nation is referred to as she instead of it.) In Spanish, there are also a few neuter pronouns that can be used to refer to an unknown object or to ideas or concepts. In the list of pronoun types below, be aware that many of the pronouns can have more than one translation, many English pronouns can have more than one Spanish equivalent, and not all pronouns are listed in the examples. For example, the English me can be translated as both me and mà ­, depending on the context, and the Spanish lo can be translated as him, or it. Not all Spanish pronouns are listed here, but enough to convey how others would be classified. Note also that many of these words that function as pronouns, particularly the indefinite and relative pronouns, can serve as other parts of speech. Types of Pronouns Pronouns can be classified as to how they are used, and all of these classifications apply to both Spanish and English. Note that some pronouns, such as me and ella, can be more than one type of pronoun. Subject pronouns replace the subject of a sentence. Examples include yo (I), tà º (you), à ©l (he), ella (she), ellos (they), and ellas (they). Yo quiero salir. (I want to leave. I or yo replaces the name of the person speaking.) Demonstrative pronouns replace a noun while also pointing to it. Examples include à ©ste (this), à ©sta (this), à ©sa (that), and aquà ©llos (those). Note that many demonstrative pronouns have written or orthographic accents on the stressed vowel. Although such accents used to be considered mandatory, these days they are treated as optional if they can be omitted without causing confusion. Quiero à ©sta. I want this. (Ésta or this replaces the name of the object the speaker is referring to.) Verbal object pronouns functions as the object of a verb. Examples include lo  (him or it), la  (her or it), me (me), and los (them). Lo no puedo ver. (I cant see it. Lo or it replaces the name of the unseen object.) Reflexive pronouns are used when the direct object and the subject of a verb refer to the same person or thing. They are used much more in Spanish than in English. Examples include me (myself), te (yourself), and se (himself, herself, themselves). Juan se baà ±a. (John is bathing himself. John is the subject of the sentence, and he is performing the action of the verb on himself.) Prepositional object pronouns are used as objects of a preposition. Examples include mà ­ (me), ella (her), and nosotros (us). Raà ºl lo comprà ³ para nosotros. (Raà ºl bought it for us. Nosotros and us are the objects of the prepositions para and for, respectively.) Prepositional reflexive pronouns are used when the object of a preposition following a verb refers back to the verbs subject. Examples include mà ­ (myself) and sà ­ (himself, herself, itself, themselves). Marà ­a lo comprà ³ para sà ­ mismo. (Marà ­a bought it for herself. Sà ­ and herself are the objects of para and for, respectively, and refer back to Marà ­a, the sentences subject. Possessive pronouns refer to something owned or possessed by someone or something. Examples include mà ­o (mine), mà ­a (mine), mà ­os (mine), mà ­as (mine), and suyo (his, hers, theirs). La mà ­a es verde. Mine is green. (Mà ­a and mine refer to the object possessed. The feminine form in Spanish is used here because it refers to an object name that is feminine. The possessive pronouns in Spanish are usually preceded by el, la, los, or las, especially when they are subjects.) Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific people or things. Examples include algo (something), nadie (nobody), alguien (anybody), todo (all), todas (all), uno (one), unos (some), and ninguno (none). Nadie puede decir que su vida es perfecta. (Nobody can say his life is perfect.) Relative pronouns introduces a clause that gives more information about a noun or pronoun. Examples include que (that, which, who, whom), quien (who, whom), cuyo (whose), cuyas (whose), donde (where), and lo cual (which, that which). Nadie puede decir que su vida es perfecta. (Nobody can say that his life is perfect. The relative pronouns here are que and that. The clause su vida es perfecta gives more information about nadie.) Interrogative pronouns are used in questions. Examples include cul (what), quià ©n (what), and cundo (when). Spanish interrogative pronouns use an orthographic accent. Cul es tu problema? (What is your problem?)

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Older (dumphones) better and more worth while than newer (smartphones) Essay

Older (dumphones) better and more worth while than newer (smartphones) - Essay Example Phones, after all, were made for basic communication and it does not need to be as complicated or detailed as a streaming media. It only needs to be plain understood. Discussion Smartphones or new generation mobile phones are much-hyped Blackberry, Android, iPhone, WebOS, and other mobile operating systems that are capable of ICT applications as well as hold and run large data including text, images, videos or streaming media from other outside sources including the internet (Snow, 2011). The trend for the past few years had been that one major brand outdo another with various new features until such time that another brand or model comes out in the market. Each is hyped as the â€Å"next generation† mobile phone or gadget that everybody should be purchasing or checking out. However, it should be noted that the telephone, the precursor of mobile phones whether analog or smartphone, is originally conceptualized as a medium for communication, a gadget that connects one end of a line to another, or allowing two persons to communicate even in long distances at real time. This same function and rationale is the reason behind the 73% of 234 million Americans using analog, dumb or traditional phones. Dumb phones place calls and send text messages but some are also capable to received data through internet programs. Technophile and associate editor of popular tech blog Engadget Ross Miller said, â€Å"Not everyone wants or needs all that power,† (Snow, 2011, P4) referring to smartphones which also usually came with higher monthly bills for $30-$50. Dumb phones are also simple to use aside from costing less of which releases the burden of the owner from breaking it aside from its smaller size and lighter weight. Predictions, however, on the extinction of dumb phones prevail despite the negative social repercussions already observed in many places where so-called mobile warriors stare or be engulfed by their smartphones all day oblivious to the world outsid e it. Nosowitz (2010) reported that the things that people do with their mobile phones are as follows in order of highest to lowest: texting or sending text messages, calling, and browsing the internet. The statistics, according to Nosowitz, remind consumers, the media, and the manufacturers that not everyone are going crazy over iPhones or HCT Incredible when buying a new cellphone, and that â€Å"hardly anyone does,† (Nosowitz, 2010, P 5). The sale and development of smartphones have been seen as unprecedented where applications and physical designs have merged to provide touch-screen user interface, advanced screen design with sharper and brighter images, location awareness of mobile phones, direct internet loading of programs and applications including publishing of videos and other media, and dedicated access to private data including company-wide communication systems (White, 2010). Access of information thus integration of the knowledge network is one of the most explo ited advantage of the smartphones as companies take advantage of the available services carriers provide. It has allowed remote or telecommute working systems where flexibility of hours and availability of time are making individuals give more time to their families, personal, and social lives (White, 2010). Despite the touted advanced features of the smartphone, some users may never get sufficient and satisfactory service. As White (2010) noted, web features cannot be implemented or emulated, small screen size makes it